Dark Roasts Explained

Coffee beans must be roasted in order for them to obtain their characteristic flavor. Roasting reduces the shelf life of the coffee bean, discount viagra so they’re normally roasted close to the time of consumption. Most coffee beans are roasted commercially, generic cialis but some coffee drinkers roast their own coffee beans to obtain greater control over the flavor.

Coffee beans are often graded according to the roast level, such that darker roasts are roasted for a longer period of time or at a greater temperature. The color of the coffee beans and other characteristics determine the specific roast level, which indicates its best possible uses. Coffee roasts also affects the concentration of components in the coffee beans such as caffeine.

Caffeine Level

Roasting produces changes in the coffee beans that affect their caffeine content. It reduces the water content of the coffee beans, which increases the caffeine content of the coffee beans by weight. Roasting also causes the coffee beans to expand, which decreases their caffeine content by volume. The amount of caffeine in coffee beans therefore depends on whether you’re measuring by weight or volume, although the difference is not great either way. For example, the caffeine content of coffee by weight is 1.37 percent for light roasts, which drops to 1.31 percent for medium and higher roasts.


Coffee roasting ovens typically have a maximum operating temperature between 464 and 527°F, and the beans are roasted between 3 and 30 minutes depending on the desired roast level. The roasting process absorbs heat below 347°F and gives off heat at temperatures above 347°F. This change means the roaster’s temperature setting must carefully adjusted to roast the coffee beans correctly. The coffee beans are cooled with forced air after the roasting cycle, although commercial roasters first spray them with a mist of water.


Color is the primary method of determining the roast level of a coffee bean. Uncooked beans are green, and they turn yellow at light roasting levels. Higher roasting levels turn the beans progressively darker shades of brown, with black beans indicating the darkest roasting levels. Oils in the coffee bean appear on the surface at higher roasting levels, which also gives the coffee beans a stronger smell.

Sound is also a good indicator of a coffee bean’s roast level. Coffee beans crack for the first time at a temperature between 401 and 405°F. They also crack a second time at a temperature between 435 and 441°F. The roasting process stops before the first crack for light roasts. Medium roasts heat the coffee beans after the first crack, but before the second crack. Dark roasts heat the coffee beans after the second crack.


Full city roast uses a roasting temperature of 437°F and produces medium dark brown beans with a sheen of oil in some places on the coffee beans. Vienna roast requires a temperature of 446°F, which makes the beans medium dark brown with a light coating of oil on the surface of the beans. French roast uses a temperature of 464°F, which makes the beans dark brown and shiny with oil. Italian roast uses a temperature of 473°F, making the beans very dark brown with burnt tones. Spanish roast uses a temperature of 482°F, which produces beans that are extremely dark brown and almost black.